What is the Formation Factor? Insights from an Engineer's Perspective

November 20, 2019
11:30 AM - 1:00 PM
 Add to Calendar

Lakewood Country Club
6800 West 10th Avenue
Lakewood, CO 80214

Presented by: chunyu qiao

About the Presentation

The infiltration of matter (water, chloride, sulfate, etc.) into concrete underlies virtually all durability mechanisms that degrade concrete. The absorption of water can cause freeze-thaw damage in cold weather regions and underlies alkali-silica reaction in many different regions. The diffusion of chloride causes steel corrosion in marine and deicer environments. Wicking commonly underlies sulfate attack and salt weathering (or physical salt attack) in arid environments. Mass transport in concrete and other porous materials is directly related to the pore network.

The formation factor, a concept developed in the petroleum industry, provides a means to quantify the transport properties of concrete by measuring electrical resistivity in the “Bucket Test”. The formation factor provides a basis to calculate the chloride diffusion coefficient and water sorptivity, which are critical parameters for service life prediction by chloride diffusion and freeze-thaw damage. It is also an inexpensive, fast and easily implemented test less prone to experimental artifacts than time-consuming tests such as ASTM C666, ASTM C1202 and ASTM C1543. Adopting the formation factor as a quality control tool and material specification is a current topic of discussion in the industry. The formation factor has been used as a QC tool in Performance Engineered Mixtures (PEM) project, and it is also under development as an AASHTO specification and is a topic of discussion for adoption in ACI 318.

About the Speaker

ACI member Chunyu Qiao is a Senior Petrographer at DRP, A Twining Company. He is an associate member of ACI Committees 201 (Concrete Durability), 350 (Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures) and 365 (Service Life Prediction). He received his PhD from University of Science and Technology Beijing, China. He was a visiting scholar at Purdue University with the Jason Weiss Group from 2013 to 2015 and a postdoctoral researcher at Oregon State University with Professor Weiss from 2016 to 2018. His research interests include the microscopy of cementitious materials, the transport properties (chloride diffusion, moisture absorption, and wicking) of cementitious materials, chemical admixtures and concrete durability.

Registration Fees

Members: $40
Non-Members: $50
At-the-Door: $60

Registration fee includes lunch, presentation, and a certificate for 1.0 Professional Development Hour (PDH) to be given to each attendee at the conclusion of the presentation.


11:30 a.m. | Check-In
11:30 a.m. - Noon | Lunch
Noon - 1:00 p.m. | Presentation

Cancellation Policy

You can cancel your registration on or before close of business on Monday, November 18, 2019, and receive a refund or substitute another person from your company. There are no refunds given for cancellations made after November 18, and no-shows will be billed.

The Deadline to Register for this event is Monday, November 18, 2019.